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    Abrogation of (Qur'anic) Verses

    Q: Is not the aborgation of verses, which has been clearly mentioned in the Quran (2:106), nothing more than conspicuous contradiction of the Qur'anic view (about things) and its laws?

    A: Aborgation does not infer contradiction in view or in a particular ruling, rather it suggest that there has been a change in the referent or subject. Explination of this matter is that, sometimes on the account of an amelioration and/or variegation in the subject (of law) one particular ruling is applied, whereas at a different time or in face of different conditions - due to other existing variegations or the abscents of the first (amelioration/variegation) - another ruling is applied (differing fro m the first). This disposition is evident due to the fact that aborgated verses (of the Qur'an) give verbal evidence of the temporary state of a mentioned verdict. Examples of this disposition are found in the Holy Qur'an - And as to such of those who ar e guilty of lewdness from among your women, then bring four witness against them from among yourselves; and if they bear witness (to the fact), Confine them to the houses till death taketh them away or God maketh some way for them (4:15) & But forgive y e and overlook ye till God bringeth about His command... (2:109) - whereas the ending of these two verses indicate that the ruling mentioned in them are temporary. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 67 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Objection of The Angles To The Creation of Adam

    Q: In the event of creating Adam(AS), why did the angles say that mankind would bring about corruption and bloodshed in the earth; is this not open objection (of God's decision)?

    A: At the time God said, "Verily I (intend to) appoint a vicegerent in the earth," the angles conceptualized earthly beings that posses physical desires and live in a world of rivalry and constint change. It is not possible to live without socialization and order; hence these things (the abscents of socialization and order) are the causes of corruption and bloodshed. Thus, the angles statment in the presents of the Divine (God) was an attempt to understand the wisdom behind the creation of mankind in su ch a world. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 115 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Qur'anic invocation: "In the name of Allah"

    Q: What is the wisdoms in repeating "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful" in the begining of each chapter of the Qur'an?

    A: Just as every chapter has a particular objective, the invocation "In the name..." has its own particular purpose in relationship with each chapter; thus in order for each chapter to fulfill its intended goal this invocation must be repeated. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Interval Life Between Heaven and Hell (Barzakh)

    S: Some say that the context of verse 28 of the chapter of The Cow (Al-Baqarah) and verse 11 of the chapter of The Believer (Al-Mu'min) - How can ye disbelieve in God; for ye were lifeless (in your mother's womb) He brought you to life. He causeth you to die and again (He will) restore you to life then unto Him will ye be returned (2:28) & They shall say, `O, our Lord! Twice didst Thou cause us to die, and twice didst Thou give us life, and (now) we do confess our sins: Is there then away to get out (of this)?' (40:11) - are the same; for they both speak about two lifes and two deaths. Therefore, both verses have one meaning - two lifes and two deaths - and neither of the two refers to an interval life (Barzak). And what is intended by death in the first verse is the physical state of man before his earthly life and spirit was breathe into him, while death in the second verse means earthly death (the removal of the soul from the earth). And what is intended by life in the first verse is the worldly li fe, while life in the second verse means life in the hereafter (on the Day of Judgement).

    A: This saying in not correct because, the context of these two verses are different. In the first verse there is one (aboslute) death, one deprivation of life (to cause to die), and two endowments of live, whereas in the second verse there are two depri vations of life and two endowments of life. It is clear that deprivation of life is not possible unless there is life before it, however (aboslute) death is not dependant upon a previous life. Thereupon, death in the first verse is verse is different fro m `the deprivation of life', which comes in the first and second verses. According to this the first `deprivation of life' in the verse - Twice didst Thou cause us to die, and twice didst Thou give us life (40:11) - is after the life of this world and th e first endowment of life is also after this worldly life, which is related to the interval life between heaven and hell; and the second death and life is related to the Day of Judgment. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 111 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Qur'anic Guidance for the Devout

    Q: In the 2nd verse of the Holy Chapter of the Cow (Al-Baqarah) it is written that the Qur'an is a guide for those who are devout, when in fact they have already found guidance and become pious through their observance of divine law. How is it that the Q ur'an can guide such people (those who have already been guided)?

    A: The devout have two types of guidance. The first is primordial, which is enjoyed by man's pure God-given nature. The second or subsequent guidance is that of the Qur'an, which in fact perfects primordial guidance. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Efficacy of Allah and (His) Servants

    Q: In the Qur'an, from one point of view, action is ascribed to Allah - even actions concerning human will power. Likewise, from another point of view, the preformance of miracles are ascribed to the actions of prophets or angles. What is the solution fo r this contradiction?

    A: there is no contradiction between these two points of view. That is because the actions of Allah are transcendent compared to the actions of His servants. Hence, the preformance of divine miracles can be ascribed to Allah - the same can be said about every action - from the point of view that their existences are dependant upon divine authorization. On the other hand, the preformance of such actions can be ascribed to prophets and angles from the point of view that they are mediators (of Allah's actions) or they are the direct actors in performing those acts - just as raising the dead, curing the sick, and giving life to a bird are ascirbed to Jesus (AS) in the Holy Qur'an. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 81 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    A Critique on Empiricism

    S: Many Empiricists, especially partisans of the perception theory, argue that because the results of intellectual acumen and deduction are faulty and misgiving (it does not distingush right from wrong), the only sure method of finding truth is through s ense perception; for the sensses have a direct relationship with the external world based on experience.

    A: 1. This argument makes use of a thoughtful premise and rational judgment via intellectual acumen and deduction. According to this (critique), if this argument is correct it would necessitate the invalidity of the (Empiricists) argument. 2. Errors made through sense perception is not less than those made by rational inference. If a particular domain of knowledge is invalid on the account that it is prone to fallacy, then the sense perception faculty is more fallacious than rational acume n. 3. Although distingushing right from wrong is a necessary process for every type of preception (rational or sense), sense preception is based on repetitive experimentation, which will yield a rational premise. For example, through expiments we come to kn ow that a particular element always or in most cases have a define quality; this finding is then associated with a major premise stating: If this quality occurs in another element in the same fashion, then it is proven to be (related to the first). Hence , the later argument is rational not sensous. 4. Assuming that experimentation supports every tangible science, it is clear that this theory can not be proven by means of another experiment, on the account that this would result in a vicious cycle or an infinte succession of experiments. Therefore, reliance upon the senses and experimentation, in reality, is confirmation of essential rational sciences (to proove the validity of experimental sciences). 5. The senses only perceive minor qualities, which are unfixed and constantly changing; and by compiling a thousand minor qualities a universal or general conclusion can not be made. However, knowledge is concerned with universal conception and general p remisses; and only rational cognition provides this aspect. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Creation of Evil

    S: In the Holy Qur'an it is written that God has created everything - God is the Creator of everything (39:62) - and it is also stated that He has created everything in favorable - He Who made best everything which He hath created... (32:7). In this mann er there a relation has been made between creation and goodness - meaning that everything that is created and existing is good. However, by contrast, reasoning and also some Qur'anic verses clearly state that some actions are evil and ugly

    A: In general, ill manners (evilness) and natural disasters (evils) - earthquakes, floods, etc... - are voids; and from this aspect they do not have fundamental existence (inasmuch as they are evil) to be counted among that which is good. In other words, sickness is void of health, blindness is void of site, opression is void of justice, and ugliness is void of beauty. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 101 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Seeking Guidance in Prayer

    Q: Muslims have found guidance (in Islam), so why do they ask for guidance in their prayers?

    A: This solicitation for guidance in reality is a request for perfection and (inner) completion, not basic and fundamental guidance. This is because gudiance has many levels and degrees. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Glorifcation of Inanimate Beings

    Q: According to the 44th verse of the 17th chapter (Bani Israel or Asra') of the Holy Qur'an - "and there is not any thing but it glorifeth Him" - everything glorifies Allah. Does this also encompass evil and sinful actions - these actions glorify Allah?

    A: 1. Everything that exist, in regards to its existence is neither evil nor foul, because the orgin of its being is Allah who is absolute good. 2. Evil and foulness are relative entites which do not posses absolute reality. 3. There are two types of glorification: (a) innate and (b) legislative. Every existent, without exception, glorifies Allah and is submissive to that which Allah has set forth for it. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Qur'anic Guidance, Meandering of the Infidel

    Q: In the 6th verse of the chapter of The Cow (Al-Baqarah) it is stated that it is not possible to guide those who disbelieve. Aknowledging this, the Qur'an has been sent to guide which group of people has ?

    A: First of all, the meaning of "those who disbelieve," in this verse are those who are firm and set in their infidelity to the extent that they heedless to any warning - alike is it for them, thou warneth them, or warneth them not (2:6). To support this thought, the Qur'an also states that the doors of guidance are open, therefore if it is impossible to guide every disbeliever, then this would mean that the doors of guidance are closed (for them). Secondly, it is not an outlandish exposition to say tha t what is meant by `disbelievers,' in this verse, is the elders of Mecca, whom opposed Islam up until their death. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Intercession in The Qur'an

    Q: Some verses of the Qur'an negate the act of intercession, while others affirm intercession; how can these verses be brought togather (in agreement)?

    A: Verses such as (...The day wherein there is no bargaining, nor, friendship, nor intercession...(2:254)), (The day when a friend shall avail not (his) friend aught, nor shall they be helped(44:41)), and (Now we have no intercessors, Nor any loving frie nd (26:100-101)) discards the concept of intercession. And on the other hand, some verses regard intercession as an action particular to God - (...for you there is none besides Him of a guardian, nor any intercessor; What! will ye not then reflect? (32:4 )), (...there shall not be for them, besides Him, any guardian or an intercessor...(6:51)), and (Say thou: God's (alone) is intercession altogather...(39:44)). Other verses of the Qur'an state that persons that have the permission of God will intercede f or others - (...Who is he that can intercede with Him but with His permission...(2:255)), (...No intercessor can there be save after His leave...(10:3)), and (...and they can not intercede but for him whom He aproveth...(21:28)). In conclusion, what is understood from gathered verses is that intercession is an action particular to God, and if He wills, then His righteous servants can have the ability to intercede; and what is refuted is intercession without the permission of God. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 155 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Set Principles In A Changing Society, Eternal Islam

    S: Socialologist, law makers, and economist all believe that laws and regulations must change and evolve in accordance with the social changes of each society. However, by contrast, the Qur'an and its' principles are associated with a particular society, which existed fourteen centries ago in the Arabian Peninsula; thus it is not suitable for todays' society.

    A: First and foremost, this argument claims that mankind and his legislation is similar to God and His legislation, while it is evident that the limited intellect of human beings along side other limitations is the cause of his ever-changing laws. On the other hand, God the Exalted, who has eternal knowledge, is aware of every detail of the mortal world; hence, with ease, He is able - in one compilation (the Holy Qur'an) - to set forth laws that are need by mankind til the Day of Judgment. Secondly, the basis of legislation in the Qur'an is the innate (awarness of) monotheism and (endeavor for) moral excellence of human beings, which does not change with the changing of time or place. The Qur'anic view on legislation is that laws must be m ade based on man's intrinsic aptitude, which is unchanging. However, by contrast, those who are of the opinion that laws change and evolve with social evolution believe that spirituallity and morality have no place (in legislation). book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 63 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Knowledge Immaterialis

    S: Without doubt thinking and perception are particular to the mind. This particular quality is corporeal, on the account that it is dependant upon material and compound bodies (it is the cognation of corporal entities). Aknowledging that it has been sci entifically proven that every inch of the physical universe is altering - becoming more perfect - it must be said that, likewise, knowledge is altering and in the state of change; thus knowledge is not uniform.

    A: This argument is developed on the basis that knowledge is corporal, while in fact knowledge is incorporeal on the account that knowledge, in essence does not posses corporal qualities - division, time and space, and motion and change. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 51 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Miraculous Eloquence of The Qur'an

    Q: If the literary fluency and eloquence of the Qur'an is beyond explanation in terms of ordinary reality, that is so only for Arab speaking people (non-Arabs are far removed from the language). Why do Muslims claim that the Qur'an is a miracle for all o f mankind?

    A: The miraculous semblance of the Qur'an is not limited to its literary fluency and eloquence, rather the Qur'an is miraculous from every aspect. The following are some illustrations of the Qur'an's supernatural traits: 1. The Qur'an incompasses many sciences such as ethics, divine & judicial law, news of the unseen, and other detailed information, which are so deep-rooted that no man has the ability to compile such a work. 2. The carrier of the Qur'an was untaught; and just as it has been mentioned, this divine book, which contains every axiom needed for worldly and spiritual sucess - written in an unparalleled manner - can benefit the most intellectual of people. Accumu lating such knowledge and truth is beyond the competence of ordinary mortal ability, especially for someone who is untaught - And thou didst not recite any book before it (the Qur'an) and thou didst not transcribe one with that right hand of thine, for t hen would have doubted those who utter falsehood (29:48). 3. The Qur'an is harmonious and without contradiction. The Holy Qur'an is a book that over a period of twenty-three years, full of ups and downs and constantly changing times, it was revealed without its' miraculous harmony being effected - Do they no t think about the Qur'an? And if it had been from any other than God, they would surely have found in it much discrepancy (4:82). 4. The Qur'an displays literary fluency and eloquence. Fundamentally, (Allah's) divine wisdom necessitates that the miracle of each prophet coincides with the most prevalent skills and sciences of his time, in order that their miraculous contributions t o humanity could be clearly observed by the masses (just as Imam Haadi (AS) indicated in his reply to Ibn Sakeet). For everyone the esthetic and spiritual melody of the Qur'an is evident, however its' eloquent methodology is exclusively for those who are familiar with the Arabic language. Interperting the supernatural eloquence of the Qur'an can only be done by some one who has mastery over the various techniques of literary and poetic eloquence. The most renowned critics of their time (when the Qur'an was being revealed) - Waleed bin Mugayarah Makhzumi, U'tba bin Rabia', and Tufail bin Amr - testified that the Qu r'an was more eloquent and superior than all other works. One century later (after the Qur'an was revealed), unsucessfully, personalities like Ibn Abi Al-Au'jaai, Ibn Maqfa', Abu Shakir Desani, and Abdul Malik Basari tried (for a whole year) to refute an d oppose the Qur'an (its' eloquence). Sufficent proof of the Qur'an's eloquence has been written in the Qur'an itself - Say thou, `if men and the jinn united that they bring the like of this Qur'an, they would bring not the like of it, even though they m ay help each other' (17:88) - and history supports this notion. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    S: Insofar as a word denotes a meaning - it is a verbal indication coined by man - it is impossible that a word signifies an meaning that is beyond mortal comprehension. In other words, human beings due to social needs - because of social interaction - c oined words to convey the meaning of things and ideas that they have in their minds. Therefore, competence in disclosing the meaning of things is relevant to the word coined by humans; thus the eloquence of the Qur'an can not be beyond the ability of man kind to compose the likes of it (the Qur'an).
    A: It is correct that words are coined to indicate upon the meaning of things and that the coiner is mankind. However, this disposition is correct only for individual words, not for the composition of the various types of sentences, which have their own particular style and beauty. Assembling individual words to create various compound sentences that convey different meanings depends upon one's knowledge of literary eloquence and fluency. Scholars of literary eloquence clearly state that the amount of knowledge and information about the affairs, psychological states, and emotions of human beings have a great affect upon (eloquent) expression; insofar as the more one knows about these things, the more eloquent his expression will be. In conclusion, it is clear that attributing the coinage of words to mankind is no proof for the absence of a text that is beyond ordinary human comprehension. Such an argument (previously stated), is like saying that the inventor if chess must be the mos t skillful player and the inventor of the tambourine must be the best at playing it. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 69 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    S: Basically, the proof that mankind cannot or until now has not been able to bring the likes of the Qur'an, is that Allah - whose eternal will governs the will of human beings - does not allow the notion of such a thought (to bring the likes of the Qur' an) to come to mankind; and if someone thinks of such a thing then Allah prevents him from fulfilling this thought. Thereupon, the reason for the Qur'an being a miracle is not because of its eloquence.
    A: This disposition, by contrast, opposes the strict tone of the Qur'an in the 13th and 14th verses of the chapter Hud - Say, `Bring ye then ten chapters like unto it forged, and call ye (to your aid) whomsoever ye can besides God, if ye be truthful; The n if they answer ye not, then know ye that this (Qur'an) is revealed (only) by God's knowledge...' (11:13-14). As it is apparent that the last sentence of this verse clearly indicates that the strict tone is based on the fact that the Qur'an was revealed by and with Allah's divine knowledge; and it is not the words of the Prophet (PBUH). On the account that man's knowledge is very limited he is not able to bring the likes of Qur'an. Another testiment on behalf of this disposition is the 82nd verse of th e chapter The Women (An-Nisa) - Do they not think (carefully) in Qur'an? And if it had been from any other than Allah, they would surely have found in it much discrepancy (4:82) - that indicates that the reason for mankind's inability to bring the likes of Qur'an is the absence of verbal and lexical contradiction in its' text; and mankind is not able to compose a work (like it) without contradicting themselves. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 70 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Denial of Miracles

    S: Every tangible entity has a particular cause, which can be known by means of experiment. According to this (general rule), every supernatural entity can be accepted as a (tangible) entity in which its cause is unknown. At most, it can be said that as long as the causes of such supernatural entities are unknown that entity is considered a miracle.

    A: The notion of the cause and effect relationship states that every contingent being needs a cause (to bring it into existence or to make it a nonexistent entity). As for the assumption that every cause must necessarily be subject to (human) comperhensi on by means of experiment, it is incorrect and there is no proof to confirm this assumption. This is because, the results of expriments are limited to physical aspects (of physical entities) and at no point can experimentation proof the metaphysical aspe cts (being or nobeing) of an entity. As for the explanation that a miracle is the awareness of an event in which its cause is unknown,it is incorrect. This is because, if this awarness (of a supernatural event) is obtained by knowing the cause (of such an event), then this would mean that t here is no difference between miracles and ordinary events; thus superhuman events could not be considered as miracles. On the other hand, if this awareness (of a superhuman event) was obtained through unordinary means - and the event was preformed with divine permission to prove the prophesy of a prophet -, then it is considered to be one type of miracle. However, miracles are not limited only to this type (to prove prophesy). book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 75-81 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Difference Between A Miracle and Supernatural Events

    Q: What is the difference between supernatural occurances that are preformed by those who practice yoga (a Hindu discipline to reach perfect spiritual insight) and miracles (preformed by prophets)?

    A: Miraculous events that - by divine authorization - are preformed by prophets and holy saints (Awliyah) have two qualities that distinguish them from Supernatural events preformed by those who practice yoga: 1. Miracles can cot be learned or taught (to others), this is because the causes of such events are beyond the conperhension of mankind. 2. Miracles (of prophets & saints) can not be surmounted by other superhuman occurances. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 82 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Misleading, Deception, and Mockery of God

    Q: In many verse of the Holy Qur'an such acts as misleading, deception, mockery, and more have been ascribed to God. Are these acts compatible with the Divine (beautiful & perfect) Atributes of God?

    A: These acts that have been ascribed to God in the Qur'an, on no account are the primary actions of God. Rather, because of continuous sinning without repenting (and being presistant in sinning) - making ill use of human free will and choice - such acti ons are carried out by God (as punishment for sinners). book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 96 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Postrating To Other Than God

    Q: Is postrating to other than God forbiden?

    A: Postration is accepted when it is preformed to display the best form of worship (for God). What is fordiden is worshiping other than God, whether it is done by postrating (to other than God) or by some other form of worship. Those who consider (the an gles) postration to Adam (AS) as forbiden, have assumed that postration - itself - is worship. Such an assumption is incorrect, because if it was so (correct), then at no point would postration be other than worship; while it is possible that postration is preformed as mockery. According to this, worship is particular to God, while postration in and of itself is not particular to God. If postrating to other than God is forbiden, then it is due to rational and/or legal deducction, which states that it is forbiden to give the status of Lordship to other than God (by means of postration). In conclusion, postration is preformed out of respect for someone; thus it can be preformed for someone (Adam (AS)) who is the representative and sincere servant of God. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 122 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Untaught Prophet

    S: Some have said that the eludication of the Qur'an about the Prophet (PBUH) being untaught is incorrect, because the Prophet (PBUH) learned many things from Selmon Farsi, an Irian scholar of his time

    A: First of all Selmon (ro) accepted Islam in Medina, whereas most of the Qur'an was revealed in Mecca, before the migration to Medina. Secondly, Selmon Farsi's knowledge of religions and their sects came from (reading) the Torah (Old Testament) and the Enjil (New Testament). On the other hand, it is evident that the stories and conversations (with) earlier prophets that are recorded in these books, from the Qur'an's point of view, are incorrect; thus the Qur'an only narrates the correct version of tho se events. This is strong enough proof that Qur'anic verses were not effected by the learnings or information of persons such as Selmon Farsi (ro). book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 64 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Seeking Miracles From the Prophet

    Q: In the Qur'an it is stated that people asked the Prophet of Islam(PBUH) to preform miracles and other superhuman events and he obstained from acting upon their request - (6:37,109), (10:20), (13:7), (21:5). If preforming miracles is a method of confir ming the prophesy of a prophet, why did the Prophet (PBUH) not make use this method?

    A: 1. These verses are concerning requests for the preformance of miracles after clear evidence of the prophesy (of Muhammad (PBUH)) had been established - through clear signs, the prophecy of previous messengers, and other miracles. Futhermore, miracles were preformed on the account of (people's) objection to and turning away from the Messenger in disbelief (of the prophesy), not merely to disclose what is reality - (6:35,124), (20:132); and divine wisdom does not necessitate the confirmation of such r equest. 2. The purpose of preforming miracles is the reconition of God's prophets and to give clear evidence to people (of the existence of God and the truthfulness of the prophet's message), not coercion of accepting the prophets invitation (to religion) or acc eptance of his leadership. Also, miracles were not preformed for entertainment or to disturb the order of cause and effect. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    Adam's Sin and The Infallibility of The Prophets

    S: According to the Shiite ideology, all prophets are infallible. However, by contrast, Adam (AS) disobeyed the command of God, which in trun it was the reason why God expelled him from living in paradise. Thus, Adam and Eve admitted their wrong doing an d sought repentance from God.

    A: Sinning is contradictary to infallibility inasfar as a sovereign command (of the Divine - God) has been disobeyed. However, in the case of Adam (AS), the command of staying away from the `Forbidden Tree' was directive and given as advice - not a sover eign command. Also, The world that Adam was living in was not a place for formal religious duty; thus the confession of Adam and Eve was not an admission of a sin. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 13 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Disposition in Revealing (Qur'anic) Verses, The Everlasting

    Q: Acknowledging that prophetic traditions have clarified the disposition in revealing some verses and laws, is it possible to apply those verses and laws to situations other than that which they have been revealed for?

    A: The disposition for which a verse was revealed does not limit it to a particular reality - the circumstance in which for which it was revealed. This is because the general eludication of the Holy Qur'an interprets reality as an absolute entity; thus i ts explination is not particular to one event. For example, if a particular person has been praised or criticized (by the Qur'an), it is because of a quality which that person posses. Thereupon, any person who has the same quality, will be encompassed by the praise or criticism (of the Holy Qur'an). book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Miraculous Eloquence of The Qur'an

    S: Insofar as a word denotes a meaning - it is a verbal indication coined by man - it is impossible that a word signifies an meaning that is beyond mortal comprehension. In other words, human beings due to social needs - because of social interaction - c oined words to convey the meaning of things and ideas that they have in their minds. Therefore, competence in disclosing the meaning of things is relevant to the word coined by humans; thus the eloquence of the Qur'an can not be beyond the ability of man kind to compose the likes of it (the Qur'an).

    A: It is correct that words are coined to indicate upon the meaning of things and that the coiner is mankind. However, this disposition is correct only for individual words, not for the composition of the various types of sentences, which have their own particular style and beauty. Assembling individual words to create various compound sentences that convey different meanings depends upon one's knowledge of literary eloquence and fluency. Scholars of literary eloquence clearly state that the amount of k nowledge and information about the affairs, psychological states, and emotions of human beings have a great affect upon (eloquent) expression; insofar as the more one knows about these things, the more eloquent his expression will be. In conclusion, it is clear that attributing the coinage of words to mankind is no proof for the absence of a text that is beyond ordinary human comprehension. Such an argument (previously stated), is like saying that the inventor if chess must be the mos t skillful player and the inventor of the tambourine must be the best at playing it. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 69 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    S: Basically, the proof that mankind cannot or until now has not been able to bring the likes of the Qur'an, is that Allah - whose eternal will governs the will of human beings - does not allow the notion of such a thought (to bring the likes of the Qur' an) to come to mankind; and if someone thinks of such a thing then Allah prevents him from fulfilling this thought. Thereupon, the reason for the Qur'an being a miracle is not because of its eloquence.

    A: This disposition, by contrast, opposes the strict tone of the Qur'an in the 13th and 14th verses of the chapter Hud - Say, `Bring ye then ten chapters like unto it forged, and call ye (to your aid) whomsoever ye can besides God, if ye be truthful; The n if they answer ye not, then know ye that this (Qur'an) is revealed (only) by God's knowledge...' (11:13-14). As it is apparent that the last sentence of this verse clearly indicates that the strict tone is based on the fact that the Qur'an was revealed by and with Allah's divine knowledge; and it is not the words of the Prophet (PBUH). On the account that man's knowledge is very limited he is not able to bring the likes of Qur'an. Another testiment on behalf of this disposition is the 82nd verse of th e chapter The Women (An-Nisa) - Do they not think (carefully) in Qur'an? And if it had been from any other than Allah, they would surely have found in it much discrepancy (4:82) - that indicates that the reason for mankind's inability to bring the likes of Qur'an is the absence of verbal and lexical contradiction in its' text; and mankind is not able to compose a work (like it) without contradicting themselves. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 70 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    A Critque on Sophistic Skepticism

    S: One of the arguments that Sophists use to deny knowledge of any ultimate reality behind the sensations of human beings is that: We never ascertain that which is in the external world - at most, we conceptualize what is in it; thus it is not possible to truthfully avouch for the external existence of a thing.

    A: The disposition of knowledge is the disclosure and illumination of the realities around us. If we accept that we only conceptualize that which is in the enternal world, this only means that we have discovered external realities (no one claims more th an this in the sutdy of epistemology). Insofar as man imagines a carnivorous predator (e.g. a lion) he does not become afraid or attempt to flee, however the moment he discovers that, in the external world, a lion is comming his direction, he becomes fri ghten and flees. The distinguishing factor between the two occurrences is that in the latter an external existence was the cause of illumination (knowledge), which is sufficent enough for the confirmation of (human knowledge of) an existent in the extern al world by the name of `liom'. book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 (A Commentary on Qur'an) Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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    The Vicegerent of God

    Q: Is the status of being the vicegerent of God particular to Adam (AS)?

    A: The answer is no, primarily, because the criterion and entrustment of teaching the names (to the angles) is not particular to Adam (AS). Secondly, there are many verses that indicate that the children of Adam (AS) are also vicegerents of God - He made you vicegerents after Noah's people (7:69) and Then we made you vicegerents in the land (10:14). book :Tafsir Al-Mizan Vol. 1 pg. 116 Author :Tba'tabai, Muhammad Husayn
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